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paper代寫,Translated from the ancient Buddhist

發布于2020-09-22 作者:留學寫作網 閱讀:
Abstract: People have always thought that in our country too much emphasis on the traditional translation of "free translation", that is too much emphasis on the subjectivity of the translator, translator in the translation process that a "naturalized" instead of "alienation" approach and plays a leading role. However, the success of the ancient Buddhist scriptures translated due in large part to build up in Translation, including the original author, translator, reader, publisher, etc., supervisors, and relationships between the main body. In fact, in the process of translation can be more concerned if this intersubjectivity, the quality of translation and the effect will be better. 

Keywords: Buddhism; translation; intersubjectivity; naturalization; alienation 

classical Indian Buddhism introduced into China and Turkey, according to the original directly on the revival of Chinese Buddhism during the Six Dynasties and the Sui and Tang dynasties the formation of the Buddhist Zhuzong, have played an important role "[4] 16. The essence of India in AD 546 monks were invited to promote Buddhism in China, in China stay for 23 years, scriptures were 38, 118 volumes. Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang Zhenguan in three years (AD 629) of pro-go to India to study Buddhism, after 17 years returned to Chang'an, then the cause of nearly 20 years of dedicated scriptures were Transwhiz 75, 1335 Vol. Staff and students are not empty in India (AD 705), the young uncle came to China with a lifetime Transwhiz 110, a total of 143 volumes. History of Chinese Buddhism in Translation, have chosen as a representative of these five masters, not only because of their scriptures is a high level, but also because they represent the scriptures of several major Buddhist sects. 
The degree of influence from the translation of Buddhist scriptures read, the scriptures activities Kumarajiva and Xuan Zang is considered the greatest impact, not only is the number of their respective scriptures leading position at the time, and their scriptures are also called first-class quality Here that the quality standards than the "song from the dialect, naughty fun in this" or "arbitrary meaning, the words songjang. Poet with the writing, to grant to play" or "good approval Italy, Miao was attentive" (Tang Buddhism, Taoism declared "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"). 
From the Translation of view, the five masters used different translation methods. An Shigao and after Kumarajiva are learning Chinese in China, and soon proficient in Chinese. But in the process of translation of Buddhist scriptures, An Shigao literal approach adopted, and strive to save the true colors of the classic; Kumarajiva Tech's translation is used (ie, free translation), by the righteousness of Fozhi to promote and elucidate, "so easy to accept Turkey chanting learners understand", without losing the "natural interest in the language of the Western Regions." Essence is invited to China to pass on, at first did not know Chinese, translation when equipped with a special "pass phrase", and then by the "pen by" documenting written.After 60 years of age, before the true meaning of "becoming benevolent Chinese words, do not need interpretation" of the. Therefore, his scriptures to use more literal way, the text will inevitably be "incomprehensible" in places, but mainly explained by the meaning of his main purpose, which asked how many have got some of his own views. From this sense, his scriptures and with a paraphrase of the mark. Famous monk in Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang 13 years old, 21 years old by the situation right ring, 29-year-old went to India to study Sanskrit classic, 46-year-old learn from home. He not only proficient in Sanskrit, by the deeper meaning was the essence of Buddhism is a "learn to do Brahmana, the solution to make the Buddha intended." Therefore, in the translation of Buddhist scriptures when "the language Chengzhang", "view the text as yourself, turn equipment still ring" (Tang, Buddhism, Taoism declared "Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks"). Although the Indians did not empty the master, but his childhood came to China, learn Chinese culture, Chinese language proficiency Vatican, translation easy to understand, "the turn by the theory, are microscopic holes." Such as "Inwang protect the country Prajna Paramita Sutra", the essence of the master hand is translated as "Inwang Wisdom by" not empty the master to be translated into "Inwang by" a paraphrase of the model. Translation of research to see from that period, the rise of translation of Buddhist scriptures for the translation of research. Influential in the first dimension only when the number of difficult, Zhu will still go far as the representative of the "quality" faction, supported Chen in the "Dhammapada sequence," The idea will also be traced back to Confucius and Lao Zi, where: "the book different words, Words "," no kind words letter words are not beautiful. "Thus, concluded:" Chuan Wu Yi today, is desirable path up. "[4] 6, however, the quality is still blind, it is inevitable stylistic barrier , incomprehensible words, adverse widely read, and there is "good Qin Wen," and that even the Eastern monks Road safety has to admit that there are five cases could not be "Trail up" (ie "five lost this"). Later, after a change of valuing Kumarajiva quality translation, the original system of informal, regular variation, both fit naturally lively and wonderful meaning. Praised his humanity after a Buddhist monk Xuan Jie, the translation of the classic "good approval Italy, Miao was attentive, will be made up to party, strength of character Reuben, Wang Yan in the world, no loss, narrated." [5] Since then, the "culture", "quality" of the war has been a Buddhist translation studies of the two main schools. During this period, the dispute has not yet subsided text quality, the more it tends to fight more clear and consistent, that is a compromise, because "the text off the injured Yan, rather then the risk of wild nature" [5]. This debate should be attributed to committed Translating the results of the main practical and theoretical study of ancient monks, such as the Eastern Jin Dynasty monk Hui Yuan, Buddhist monks Later Qin Rui, Liang Yu monk monk, monks Sui Yan Zong of the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, Tao Xuan and Song Ning, like monks. They are not only persistent practice, but also from the perspective of dialectical quality and yet the text still blindly given serious criticism, particularly the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang Master Translating practice tone quality of the two monks translated the text and the concept is still made the offer as an example. Liang praised descendants, said: "If those Xuan Zang, the paraphrase translation, successful conciliation, the polar orbit Stora also" [6] 29. To do this, of course, not just the "five no turning," can be achieved, but the main thing is, "Xuan Zang in the scriptures in the successful use of the supplementary method, omit the method, displacement method, sub-legal, translated under the guise of law, pronounsreduction method "[4] 31 and so on translation skills, to solve such as" no hidden as ignorant, "" quiet Xu Mo look "like the problem. 

 

 

摘要:人們一直認為,在我們國家對傳統翻譯的“意譯”,那就是過分強調譯者的主體性,譯者在翻譯過程中,過分強調“歸化”,而不是“異化”接近和起著主導作用。然而,成功的古代佛經翻譯在很大程度上是建立在翻譯,包括原作者,譯者,讀者,出版商等,監事,主體之間的關系。事實上,在翻譯的過程中,可以更加關注,如果這個主體間性,翻譯的質量和效果會更好。

關鍵詞:佛教翻譯;主體間入籍;異化
 
摘要:人們一直認為意譯放在更強調已在中國翻譯的歷史,過分強調譯者的主體。也就是說,它總是使用馴養方法,而不是異化了中國傳統翻譯譯者的主導地位。然而,我們相信,古代佛教翻譯的成功在很大程度上歸功于和諧的主體間性,如原來的作家,翻譯解釋,讀卡器,監事,和出版商參與翻譯。其實,如果更注重翻譯的主體間實現支付,我們會得到更多的成功翻譯的質量和效果。
關鍵詞:佛教翻譯;主體間性;馴化;異化
 
一,產品簡介
無論是在哲學,或在文學,關于這個問題的討論的話題已經過時。但這個概念在翻譯研究會仍然引起了不少的爭議。特別是近年來,學者們翻譯討論的主題是熱鬧。通過討論和爭論,一些學者認為,“翻譯是唯一的翻譯主要”[1]有學者認為,主譯[2],還有學者認為,除了應該包括作家,翻譯家和讀者翻譯人員,讀者和接受環境也是主要的創造性叛逆[3]。然而,不管多少辯論的差異,對譯者的主要作用似乎已經給予了充分肯定,夸大了“自由翻譯”,“馴化”,而傳統的翻譯給出了相同的批評。本文從古老的佛教歷史事實的翻譯,在翻譯的作用的理解,探索的課題翻譯佛經,然后顯示了譯者的主導地位,以及與其他學科之間的關系,古代經文我們的活動已經成立,并衡量經文水平的關鍵因素。
 
二,佛經翻譯在中國古代概述
在中國古代的佛經翻譯主要是指東漢恒帝(公元148年)時期的佛教活動早在宋代(公元988年)翻譯。達到高峰,然后下降,從過去800年。一般認為,公元2世紀,來到伊朗,中國,佛教僧侶王安石高的創始人,34譯經翻譯他們的生活,40余冊。從那時起,在著名的佛教大師鳩摩羅什翻譯,而不是真正意義上的玄奘空等。這種劃分有四五個是翻譯外國和尚玄奘是中國唯一的漢。鳩摩羅什(公元343年),印度本土,來到中國東晉期間,住甘肅17年后,58歲的長安翻譯佛經,他的經文35,300余冊,“他是第一次古典印度佛教引入中國,土耳其,根據原來直接在六朝時期和隋唐佛教朱總形成了中國佛教的復興,都發揮了重要的作用” [4] 16。在公元546名僧人被邀請印度的精髓,以促進佛教在中國,在中國停留了23年,經文分別為38,118冊。唐代高僧玄奘法師貞觀三年(公元629年)唐太宗親去印度學習佛法,17年后回到長安,譯經事業近20年的專用經文1335卷75, 。教職員和學生是不是空的印度(公元705年),年輕的叔叔來到中國,用一生譯經110,共143卷。在翻譯中的中國佛教的歷史,選擇了這五大高手的代表,不僅是因為他們的圣經是一個高層次,而且還因為他們代表了經典的幾大佛教宗派。
從翻譯佛經讀,經文活動鳩摩羅什和玄奘的影響程度被認為是影響最大的,不僅是一些處于國內領先地位的時候,各自的經文,經文也被稱為一流的質量。這里說的質量標準比“從方言歌曲,在這個頑皮的樂趣”或“任意的含義,字成章。寫作的詩人,授予發揮”或“良好的批準意大利,苗周到”(唐佛教,道宣“續高僧傳”)。
從翻譯來看,五大高手用不同的翻譯方法。安世高和鳩摩羅什后學習中國在中國,在中國很快精通。但在佛教經文,一個詩稿文字的方式通過的,翻譯的過程和努力,以拯救真正的經典的顏色;科技鳩摩羅什翻譯的使用(即,免費翻譯),佛智義促進和闡明,“那么容易接受土耳其唄學習者理解“,不失”自然興趣西域的語言。“邀請中國的本質是傳遞,起初不知道中國的,翻譯時配備了一個特殊的“通行證”,然后由“筆”記錄寫入。 60歲后,才真正意義上的“成為仁者中國話,不要需要解釋”的。因此,他的經文來使用更多的文字,文字難免會“難以理解”的地方,但主要是他的主要目的,問有多少得到了一些自己的看法的意思解釋。從這個意義上說,他的經文和與意譯的標志。唐代高僧玄奘13歲,21歲的情況右環的著名高僧,29歲去印度學習梵文經典,46歲從家里學習。他不僅精通梵文,更深層次的含義是佛教的本質是一個“學習做婆羅門,使溶液佛意。”因此,在翻譯佛經時,“語言成章”,“查看自己的文本,打開設備仍然環”(唐,佛教,道教宣“續高僧傳”)。雖然印度人沒空大師,但他的童年來到中國,學習中國文化,中國的語言能力梵蒂岡,容易理解的翻譯,“轉理論,是微觀孔”。如“仁王護國般若波羅蜜”,譯為“仁王般若大師之手的精髓是”不為空的主,被翻譯成“仁王”意譯的模型。研究,看看那個時期的翻譯,翻譯佛經翻譯研究的興起。有影響力的數量,難度,只有當朱仍然會走得很遠為代表的“質量”派,支持陳中的“法句經序列的第一個維度,”我們的想法也可以追溯到孔子和老子:“書不同的字,詞”,“毫不客氣的話字母的單詞是不漂亮。”因此,得出結論:“川吳儀今天,是可取的路徑。”[4],但是,質量仍然是盲目的,這是不可避免的文體障礙,難以理解的話,不良廣泛閱讀,并有“好秦文,”東方僧侶甚至道路安全也不得不承認,有五種情況不能“小道”(即“五失去這種“)。后來,經過評估鳩摩羅什質量翻譯非正式的,定期的變化,原來的系統的改變,既適合自然生動和精彩的意義。后,一個和尚軒杰,翻譯經典的“好批準意大利稱贊他的人性,苗族是羞澀,將進行黨的風骨,王艷魯本在世界上,沒有損失,敘述”。 [5]從那時起,“文化”,“品質”之戰一直是兩大流派的佛教翻譯研究。在此期間,爭議尚未平息文本質量,更傾向于爭取更明確和一貫的,那就是一種妥協,因為“受傷的顏文字關,而野性的風險”[5]。這次辯論應歸功于致力于翻譯歷代高僧,如東晉高僧慧遠主要實踐和理論研究成果,后來秦銳,梁瑜和尚和尚,和尚穗衍宗唐代佛教僧侶玄奘,陶軒和宋寧,像和尚。他們是不是只有執著的做法,但也從質量的辯證的角度來看,但文字仍然盲目地給予嚴肅的批評,特別是唐代高僧玄奘法師翻譯實踐音質兩位高僧翻譯的文字和概念仍然提供一個例子。梁啟超稱贊的后裔,說:“如果那些玄奘意譯翻譯,調解成功,極地軌道斯道也”[6] 29。要做到這一點,當然不只是“五不拐彎,”可以實現的,但更主要的是,“玄奘在經文中成功使用的補充方法,省略法,位移法,分法律的幌子下,法律,翻譯,代詞還原法“[4] 31等翻譯技巧,如”沒有任何隱藏的無知“,”安靜徐莫看看“之類的問題解決。
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