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The University of Queensland :公司財務報表的解讀

發布于2020-09-22 作者:留學寫作網 閱讀:
 
 
公司財務報表的解讀-留學生教案 Interpretation of Financial Statements
 
學習目標Learning Objectives
通過使用比率分析來分析和理解會計信息To analyse and interpret accounting information through the use of ratio analysis  
以幫助評估現有的和潛在的股東投資的主要比率Calculate and interpret key ratios to help current and potential shareholders assess investments
To recognise the limitations of ratio analysis
 
分析的目的The purpose of analysis
財務報表使用者的不同群體有不同的信息需求。Different groups of financial statement users with different information needs
Focus will be on needs of equity investors and suppliers of credit
Differing levels of technical expertise
Focus on tools used by a sophisticated user
 
The purpose of analysis (cont.)
主要問題涉及到公司的業績和財務實力,但用戶的重點可能會有所不同。Primary questions relate to company performance and financial strength, but user emphasis may differ
Investment analysts are primarily interested in financial statements as a predictor of future performance
投資分析師的主要興趣在財務報表中作為預測未來的發展。Lenders will primarily focus on the financial strength (default risk)
Each question is the sum of different issues
 
分析公司信息 Analysing company information
 
Traditional analysis
Basis of traditional analysis is relevant comparison
Comparison over time or in space
Time series analysis: comparing company performance over time
橫向分析:公司在同行業中與其他公司的業績比較 Cross-sectional analysis: comparing company performance with other companies in the same industry (or industry average)
 
時間序列分析Time series analysis
Horizontal analysis 
使用多年的信息庫 Using a multi-year information base
Trend percentages
Select a base year
Set item amounts of that year = 100%
每一次年相應金額=通貨膨脹的百分數 Corresponding amount of each following year = % of base mount
Impact of inflation
 
Time series analysis- Illustration
 
 
Cross-sectional analysis
Comparison with other companies in the same industry for the same year
Differences in company characteristics should always be accounted for in interpretation
Comparison with industry averages 
Multi-product companies
Definition and size of industry groupings
 
Tools of analysis
Common-size financial statements
Use of financial ratios
Management performance ratios
Financial strength ratios
 
Common-size financial statements
Standardizing financial statements by introducing a common denominator
在一個共同的資產負債表,資產負債表中的每個組成部分,以總資產的百分比表示 In a common-size balance sheet each component of the balance sheet is expressed as a percentage of total assets
在一個共同的大小的收益表中以每個產品銷售的百分比表示 In a common-size income statement each item is expressed as a percentage of sales
 
Common-size financial statements 
(cont.)
Allow comparison of companies of different size (in terms of total assets and sales)
Allow (internal) structural analysis of the financial statements of a company
Relative magnitude of asset, liability, equity and income statement components
Combination of horizontal and vertical analysis
 
Common-size balance sheet – 
Illustration
 
 
Common-size income statement – 
Illustration
 
 
使用財務比率Use of financial ratios
金融比例代表兩個或兩個以上的財務報表項目之間的數學關系A financial ratio expresses the mathematical relationship between two or more financial statement items that are logically linked
Comparison over time and in space
Like must always be compared with like
Combined use of financial ratios is more informative
財務比率作為管理績效和資金實力的指標 Financial ratios as indicators of management performance and financial strength
 
 
Management performance ratios
盈利能力和資產利用率Profitability and asset utilization ratios
Margin ratios (return on sales) show how successful management is in creating profit from a given quantity of sales
Return on investment ratios take into account the investment needed to generate the profit
Asset utilization ratios measure how efficient management uses the company’s assets
 
 Profitability ratios
 
 
保證金比率 Margin ratios
Main ratios:
經營毛利率 Gross operating margin
凈營業利潤率 Net operating margin
 
凈利潤率 Net profit margin
Measure operating efficiency
Tend to be highly industry-specific 
 
投資率回報 Return on investment ratios
Main ratios:
股本回報率 Return on equity (ROE)
資產報酬率 Return on assets (ROA)
資本回報率 Return on capital employed (ROCE)
Each reflects the profit generated by a specific pool of funds, excluding the costs of the specific funds considered 
Different denominators (investment base) and numerators (profit figure retained)
 
ROI - perspectives
凈資產收益率衡量公司已經獲得其股東投入的資金多少 ROE measures how much a company has earned on the funds invested by its shareholders (shareholder perspective)
ROA shows how well a company’s funds were used, irrespective of the relative magnitudes of the sources of these funds (current liabilities, debt and equity)
資本回報率代表公司已經獲得投資的長期資金(永久雇用資本=股東權益+長期負債)ROCE shows how much a company has earned on invested long-term funds (permanently employed capital = equity + LT debt)
 
Earnings per share (EPS)
Shows how much of a period’s net profit has been earned by each ordinary share outstanding (basic EPS) or by shares outstanding plus all potential shares (diluted EPS)
Potential shares are equity instruments issued that can be converted into ordinary shares at the option of the holder of the instrument
IAS 33 Earnings per Share requires that listed companies disclose both basic and diluted EPS on the face of the income statement
 
Price/earnings ratio
EPS is used as input to a market ratio, the price/earnings or P/E ratio:
 
Reflects how the market (market price) judges the company’s performance (growth expectations)
It is an inverted rate of return ratio
Also called the Earnings Multiple
 
Asset utilization ratios
Main ratios:
Total asset turnover
Fixed asset turnover
Inventory turnover
Receivable turnover
Turnover ratios measure efficiency of use of (categories of) assets
Tend to be industry-specific
 
 Asset utilization ratios
 
 
Financial strength ratios
Indicate the strength of a company’s financial position from the point of view of long-term solvency risk and short-term liquidity risk
Solvency refers to the long-term ability to generate cash internally or from external sources in order to meet long-term financial obligations
 
Liquidity refers to the ability to generate cash to meet short-term obligations
 
長期償債能力的風險比 Long-term solvency risk ratios
Main ratios:
債務/權益比率 Debt/equity ratio
資產負債比率 Gearing ratio
Interest and dividend cover
Gearing as indicator of default risk
Debt financing introduces financial risk because it implies fixed commitments in the form of interest payments and principal repayment and exposure to interest rate movements 
 
 Long-term solvency risk ratios
 
 
Short-term liquidity risk ratios
Main ratios:
Current ratio and acid-test ratio
Credit given and credit obtained
Days inventory outstanding
Liquidity tests focus on the make-up of working capital and the activity level of its components
Low liquidity implies financial risk as inability to service short-term debt payments may lead to higher interest expense and, eventually, bankruptcy  
 
 Short-term liquidity risk ratios
 
 
分析財務報表 Analysing financial statements
Decode messages built into financial statements and use them to ‘tell the story’
Time series analysis of ratios
Combine patterns of financial ratios 
Compare cross-sectionally
Ratio analysis is only part of an investment appraisal process - also consider:
Non-financial performance indicators
Broader economic variables
Information about future business plans, etc.
 
Worked example (1)
 
Worked example (2)
 
 
LECTURE SUMMARY 
Get background information: Ratio benchmarks
Horizontal and vertical analysis of financial statements
Ratio analysis: Profitability
Ratio analysis: Efficiency
Ratio analysis: Short-term solvency and liquidity
Ratio analysis: Long-term solvency and liquidity
 
 
 
 
 
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