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現有船舶機械改造措施的適用性

發布于2020-09-22 作者:留學寫作網 閱讀:
這篇文章主要介紹了減少船舶溫室氣體排放的技術和業務措施,文章重點介紹了減少船舶排放到空氣中的替代品的技術和措施,措施通過評估各種選項,分為短期及長遠角度兩部分。
TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL MEASURES FOR REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM SHIPS
減少船舶溫室氣體排放的技術和業務措施
 
 
1. Introduction
介紹
 
 
Following the assessment of the amount of emissions to air from shipping in chapter 3 and the effect on climate and ozone described in chapter 4, this chapter focus on alternatives for reduction of emissions to air from ships. In the following both technical and operational measures are presented.
繼在第3章中向空氣中的排放量評估航運后,在第4章描述氣候和臭氧的影響,本章重點介紹減少船舶排放到空氣中的替代品。在下面的技術和業務措施中。
 
 
The assessment of various options was performed with both a short term and long term perspective. In the context of this report, short term is closely related to availability of technical measures. As applicability of various measures may be different for new and existing ships, the discussion of the various technical alternatives was divided into one part concerning new ships and one part concerning existing ships.
評估各種選項,以短期和長遠的角度來看。在這份報告的背景下,短期內是密切相關的技術措施的可用性。
 
 
2. Short-term considerations – applying state-of-the-art knowledge
短期考慮 - 國家的最先進的應用知識
 
 
2.1. Hull and propeller: new ships
船體和螺旋槳:新船
 
 
This section focuses on the energy savings that can be obtained by application of current technology within hydrodynamics (hull and propeller  http://ukthesis.org/ibm/    ) on new ships. Energy savings can then be easily converted into emission reductions.
本節重點介紹在流體力學中目前的技術應用,可以得到新船(船體和螺旋槳)節約能源。然后,可以很容易地轉換成減排節能。
 
 
International merchant shipping is a highly economically optimised business. Fuel cost is a major operating cost of most merchant ships. Ship designs are usually fairly well optimised with respect to maximum profitability. Thus, one should expect that there is not much efficiency to be gained by better design and selection of propulsion systems without changing the external economic conditions. Also in this section, measures that are not currently profitable will be discussed.
國際商船是一個高度經濟優化業務。燃料成本是一個主要的經營成本,大多數商船中,船舶設計通常是相當不錯的,在最大盈利方面進行了優化。
Retarded fuel injection timing is the simplest way to reduce NOx from a ship diesel engine. This measure can be implemented without hardware modification or extra cost. Retarded timing alone have a ne
 
Retarded fuel injection timing is the simplest way to reduce NOx from a ship diesel engine. This measure can be implemented without hardware modification or extra cost. Retarded timing alone have a negative effect on fuel consumption (specific CO2 increases). Reduction of the NOx emission level in the range of 6-8 g/kWh is possible, but at a cost of an increased fuel consumption of 5-7 g/kWh. Most measures imply retrofit and engine modifications aiming for an improved combustion in order to reduce CO2 and NOx emissions. The possible measures descried in the following are all primarily for NOx reduction and imply additional or modified equipment installed.
大部分措施意味著改造和引擎的修改,旨在改善燃燒,以減少二氧化碳和氮氧化物排放量。可能在下面描述的措施中都主要用于NOx還原,意味著額外的或修改過的安裝設備。
 
Low NOx combustion:
低NOx燃燒
 
Some engine manufacturer can offer retrofit/upgrading packages for ”low NOx combustion” without increase of fuel consumption. A low NOx combustion upgrade on an existing engine implies to some extent engine component retrofit. The reduction of NOx emission is in the range of 4-6 g/kWh [Wärtsilä NSD, 1997].
 
Water injection:
Water injection to reduce NOx is an effective measure (50-60% NOx reduction) which can be retrofitted on existing engines. The main components are the combined injector, common rail water supply system and electronically control system. Retrofit cost figures are estimated to approximately 25 USD pr. kilowatt. The operating cost inclusive maintenance is about 4-5 % of fuel costs [Wärtsilä NSD, 1998, Diesel & Gas Turbine, 1999].
 
Emulsion:
乳液
 
Fuel emulsion (adding water in fuel) is a NOx reduction measure where the necessary equipment can be installed on existing engines. The reduction potential without penalty on fuel efficiency is in the range of 20-25%.
乳化燃料(燃料中加入水)是一個必要的設備,可以安裝在現有發動機的NOx還原措施。在未經燃油效率罰款的還原電位是在20%至25%的范圍內。
 
Humid Air Motor (HAM):
Implementation of the HAM technique on existing engines can result in up to 60% reduction of
NOx emission level. The technique is however new and the long-term operational effect is not fully proven. In existing ship it is in most cases difficult to install the HAM equipment, mainly because of the rearrangement of the air supply system to the engine and the additional space required. Most engines have a turbo-charger and aftercooler system that is heavily integrated and matched for the specific engine. Engine manufacturers may be reluctant to modify this original integrated system solution [Bunes et .al, 1998, Munters Europa 1998].
 
Miller Cycle:
The Miller principle and measures as described on new engines are also valid for existing engines.
Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR): Several problems need to be addressed and solved before EGR will be an applicable measure for existing or new ships. The main challenge is the re-entrance of particul
 
Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR):
Several problems need to be addressed and solved before EGR will be an applicable measure for existing or new ships. The main challenge is the re-entrance of particulates damaging for the engine, especially when running on HFO and therefore very limited application is foreseen
[EPA 1998, DNV, 1998].
 
SCR:
 
A properly operating SCR installation can remove up 95 % of NOx components from the exhaust. It can be installed on existing machinery as retrofit packages, which includes the reactor, urea storage/dosing and control system. For installation on an existing ship there are some practical limitations due to the need for space. Although the reactor can replace the exhaust silencer it can be rather costly to install. In addition to the space for the reactor, there is also need for storage space for urea.
一個正常操作的SCR安裝,可以去除高達95%的氮氧化物組件排氣。它可以安裝在現有的機械改裝套件,其中包括在反應器中,尿素存儲/定量給料和控制系統。
 
CO and HC
Efforts on upgrading an existing engine normally also pay off with minor reductions on CO and HC emissions. In the overall perspective these gains are very small as the CO and HC emissions from the diesel combustion process are very low initially.  Due to this reduction measures for CO and HC have not been further assessed in this report.
 
SOx
氧化硫
 
The SOx emissions are related to the quality of the fuel. Only a dramatic turnover from high sulphur to low sulphur fuel oil can have a major impact on SOx emissions from the existing fleet.
SOx的排放與燃料的質量。只有一個戲劇性的營業額從高含硫量的低硫燃料油,對現有車隊中的SOx的排放有重大影響。
 
Table 5-7 - Emission reduction in existing ships – applicability
表5-7 - 現有船舶減排適用性
 
Figure 5-4 above compares NOx reduction measure and cost for new ships. The figure is to a large extent valid also for similar measures on existing ship machinery for the techniques that is possible to implement. The NOx/CO2 trade off (Figure 5-5) will also be valid for measures on existing machinery systems.
NOx/CO2對現有的機械系統,權衡(圖5-5)有效的措施。
 
Table 5-8 summarises the potential for fuel savings on existing ships by machinery measures.
表5-8總結了通過機械措施,現有船舶節省燃油的潛力。
 
Table 5-8 – CO2 reduction potential in existing ships - machinery measures
表5-8 - 現有船舶CO2減排潛力 - 機械措施

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