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代寫 China's tourism promotional materials

發布于2020-05-22 作者:留學寫作網 閱讀:
Abstract] Translation of Chinese tourism promotional materials, the material in the cultural schema are often a great deal of trouble to the translator. From the perspective of schema theory, attempt to analyze the translation of cultural schema when the common problems and to discuss coping strategies under the appropriate circumstances. 

[Key words] China's tourism promotional materials; schema theory; cultural schema 
Abstract: Cultural Schemata often poses great difficulty in the translation of Chinese tourist publicity materials. From the perspective of Schema Theory, this essay tries to analyze the problems translators often encounter in translating cultural schema and to discuss the strategies commonly used in coping with such situations. 
Key words: Chinese tourist publicity material; schema theory; cultural schema
  

reform and opening up, China's tourism industry developed rapidly. China, the mysterious ancient oriental country, with its picturesque landscapes, rich cultural heritage, attracting visitors from around the world. In order to better promote cultural exchange, and promote the development of tourism, more and more Chinese travel information has been translated into English. However, many historic tourist attractions, culture, profound, they load a lot of history and culture for foreign visitors, a complete stranger, and this has brought to the translation of great difficulties. 
This article will use the Chinese translation of schema theory analysis of tourist information in a common cultural schema when the problem of dealing with these problems. 

a, Schema Theory and Translation 

schema theory was first used by the famous philosopher Immanuel Kant (Immanuel Kant) made in 1781. Schema Kant described as the "help us understand the inner structure of the world" [1] 252.1932, the British psychologist Bartlett (FCBartlett) for the first time in his book "Memory" (Remembering) used in Figure type the term, that schema is "In the past the positive reaction or organization of past experience" [2] 201.20 century, 70 years, many linguists and psychologists, such as Minsky (1975), Rumelhart (1980), Carrel and Eisterhold (1988), Eysenck and Keane (1990), etc., the use of schema theory analysis and interpretation of foreign language learning and reading in the process of psychological processes, the formation of the modern schema theory [3] 64. 
modern schema theory suggests that schema is organized around a topic of knowledge representation and storage methods are called by the "variable (variable)" or "channel (slot)" the different parts. It is that discourse does not itself have any meaning, but only to the listener, reader how to construct the direction of intent. When readers encounter a stimulus, the associated schema "channel" is filled, schema is "instantiated" (instantiated), the reader's understanding of the corresponding image formation fishes [4] 31-32. 
schema is divided into linguistic schemata, formal schemata and content schemata. This article will discuss the content schema refers to the "content of the article part of the background knowledge" [5] 79, is very important for the understanding of the article. It contains a topic usually happens within the conceptual knowledge and information. For example: When Chinese readers to read "Chinese New Year" when it is natural to think of family reunion, a festive dinner, paintings, couplets, firecrackers, highly profitable and so on. Content schemata can help the reader through forecasting, information better and faster understanding of selected articles. Content schemata close contact with the culture, therefore, also often called the "cultural schema." 
in translation, the translator's task is to the original information in the translation expressed in the form, so that translation can be activated in the minds of readers of the corresponding schema, to help the reader get the same or similar with the original understanding of the reader. Some scholars have pointed out that "In a sense, can be understood to be translated as 'Schema Translation'" [6] 50. 
cultural schema is the translator of the most difficult problem and needs to be handled carefully. The tourism and cultural information materials can be said to be very concentrated, in the translation process to translate, if not addressed, some of which cultural information is likely because they can not activate the appropriate schema the reader, even difficult to understand the failure 

Second, tourism translation gaps and differences in cultural schemata 

(a) cultural schemata blank (cultural schema default) 
because of geographical, historical and cultural reasons, some very familiar with the concept of a civilization can not exist in another culture entirely, and no corresponding expression. The reader "not an appropriate schema, there is no way to quickly build a Schema" [4] 41, resulting schema blank. 
For example, in appreciation of the cultural heritage of China, foreign tourists will inevitably come into contact with a lot of historical names. These names for the Chinese people are very familiar, but for tourists may be completely unfamiliar to. The following sentence taken from Zhejiang Lanxi Monk Ji Gong Memorial Hall on the introduction: 
Example 1: Chi Kung Robin Hood, loved by the poor people [7]. 
Ji Gong in China is a household name, his image in the minds of Chinese people have also taken root. When Chinese readers to see "Ji Gong" This is a word, their minds Chi Kung schema will be activated - casual clothes, some crazy words, different behavior, hatred for the rich is not benevolent, and concern for the poor and so on. However, Western readers do not know, "Ji Gong" Why promise them. If the sentence directly translated as "Jigong robbed the rich and helped the poor and was deeply loved and esteemed by the impoverished", as the reader of cultural schema of the blank, Western readers will be the surface meaning of a sentence, did not like the Chinese readers produce warm feeling. 
In addition, the long history in China, dynasties is a common phenomenon. Various dynasties of China there is also a schematic of Western tourists blank common cause. For example: 
Example 2: (Utopia), founded in Shanxi, first flourished in the Tang and peak in the Song, Yuan Tai destroyed, when the decline in the Ming and Qing fashionable, depression in the Republic of China, becoming complex in the liberation of large-scale restoration was developed in 1990 [8]. 
PRESIDENT: It was first built in the Jing Dynasty and got more prosperous in the Tang Dynasty and gradually flourished around the Song Dynasty. However, it suffered damages during the Yuan Dynasty. Sometimes it rose and sometimes declined in the Ming and Qing Dynasty . It became desolate during the period of Min Guo and only resorted with state funds after liberation and has been developing in a big way in 1990. 
aside grammatical errors in translation and misuse of the word is not said that the translation did not convey an idea of paradise through dynastic changes, ups and downs of history. For the little knowledge of Chinese history, foreign tourists, because there is no corresponding schema is available, these dynastic names for them, but no sign of any significance. 
(b) of the Cultural Schema Differences (cultural schema disparity) 
Howard pointed out that the schema differences between the "intention of the reader and the author used a different schema to understand the article," [4] 42. This is the translator of Chinese tourism promotional materials for cultural schemata often encountered another problem. In this case, the original author and the reader's schema different, even conflicting.When the reader will understand its own basis of the corresponding schema, but because of cultural differences between China and the West, the same image may be activated in the minds of Western readers a completely different schema. 
Example 3: same time, the lake dug soil, according to the needs of the garden layout piled in the mountains, so that the image of the mountain like a big bat artful ... ... 
asked: In the meantime, the earth dug from the bottom of the lake was piled up on the hill according to a fastidious landscaping plan, turning the hill into what looks like a giant bat fluffing its wings ... [9] 4 
In this translation, the translator seems to faithfully transmit the original information. But the minds of the readers asked activated schema is questionable. In Western countries, "bat" is a kind of ugly creatures, usually with the evil vampire image of a class together. This translation is not only unable to activate the reader familiar with Western cultural schema, but the reader may be in the hearts of a negative impact. Another example: 
Example 4: Han Virtual Church: Qing Yi Park, the Yellow Crane Tower is an imitation of the construction of three pavilions, fame Toad House [9] 68. 
here, "toad" is a traditional Chinese myth of the animals living in the moon, the ancients often used to suggest the moon. Chinese "toad" and English "toad" refers to an animal are the same, but the reader's cultural schema is not in the Chinese readers of these variables. 
travel in the translation of such materials, the translator must take into account the reader's cultural schema, breaking the boundaries of the surface structure of Chinese characters to express the true meaning

 

摘要]中國旅游宣傳資料的翻譯,在文化架構的材料往往是一個很大的麻煩翻譯。從圖式理論的角度出發,試圖分析翻譯文化模式時的常見問題,并在適當的情況下,討論應對策略。

[關鍵詞]中國的旅游宣傳資料;圖式理論;文化模式
摘要:文化圖式往往帶來極大的困難,中國的旅游宣傳材料的翻譯。從圖式理論的角度看,這篇文章試圖分析問題翻譯人員經常會遇到在翻譯文化模式,并討論常用的策略應對這種情況。
關鍵詞:中國的旅游宣傳材料;圖式理論的文化模式
  
改革開放以來,中國旅游業的迅速發展。中國,神秘的東方古國,其如詩如畫的風景,豐富的文化底蘊,吸引了來自世界各地的游客。為了更好地促進文化交流,促進旅游業的發展,越來越多的中國旅游信息已被翻譯成英文。然而,許多歷史悠久的旅游景點,文化,博大精深,加載了很多的歷史和文化對于外國游客來說是一個完全陌生,這帶來了很大的困難翻譯。
本文將使用中國的旅游信息翻譯模式理論分析時,在共同的文化模式的問題,處理這些問題。
 
一,圖式理論與翻譯
 
圖式理論最早是由著名哲學家康德在1781年(康德)。架構康德形容為“幫助我們了解世界的內部結構”[1],第一次在他的著作“記憶體英國心理學家巴特萊特(FCBartlett)的”(記住)圖型使用的術語,該架構252.1932 “在過去的積極反應或組織以往的經驗”[2] 201.20世紀70年代以來,許多語言學家和心理學家,如明斯基(1975),魯梅哈特(1980),卡雷爾和Eisterhold(1988),艾森克和基恩(1990)等,利用圖式理論分析和解釋外語學習和閱讀的心理過程,在這個過程中形成的現代圖式理論[3] 64。
現代圖式理論認為,組織架構圍繞一個主題的知識表示和存儲方法,被稱為“變量(變量)”或“通道(槽)”的不同部分。這是話語本身沒有任何意義,但只到聽者,讀者如何建構方向的意圖。當讀者遇到的刺激,相關的“通道”模式被填滿,架構“實例”(實例),讀者的理解,相應的圖像形成魚[4] 31-32。
模式分為語言圖式,形式圖式,內容圖式。本文將討論的內容架構是指“內容的文章的背景知識”[5] 79,對文章的理解是非常重要的。它包含一個主題通常發生在概念性的知識和信息。例如:當中國讀者閱讀“中國新年”,當它是很自然的想到家人團聚,團年飯,繪畫,貼春聯,放鞭炮,高利潤等。內容圖式可以幫助讀者通過預測,信息更好更快地了解所選文章。因此,內容圖式與文化的密切接觸,也常常被稱為“文化模式”。
中譯本,譯者的任務是原來的翻譯的形式表達出來的信息,所以,翻譯可以激活相應的架構讀者心目中,幫助讀者獲得相同或相似的,原來的理解讀卡器。有學者指出,“從某種意義上講,可以理解為被翻譯為”模式翻譯'“[6] 50。
文化模式是翻譯的最困難的問題,需要小心處理。旅游和文化信息材料,可以說非常集中,在翻譯過程中,翻譯,如果不加以解決,其中一些文化信息很可能因為他們不能激活相應的模式,讀者,甚至難以了解故障。
 
其次,旅游文化圖式的翻譯存在的差距和分歧
 
(一)文化圖空白(文化模式默認)
由于地理,歷史和文化的原因,一些文明的概念非常熟悉,不能存在于另一種文化完全消失,而沒有相應的表達。讀者“不是一個合適的模式,有沒有辦法快速建立模式”[4] 41,​​得到的模式空白。
例如,在欣賞中國的文化遺產,外國游客難免會接觸到了很多歷史的名字。這些名字對于中國人來說是非常熟悉的,但對游客可能是完全陌生的。下面的句子取自浙江蘭溪濟公紀念館的介紹:
例1:池西貢羅賓漢,深受窮人[7]。
濟公在中國是一個家喻戶曉的名字,他的形象在中國人心目中扎根。當中國讀者看到“濟公”這是一個字,他們的頭腦馳西貢模式將被激活 - 休閑服,一些瘋狂的話,不同的行為,對富人的仇恨,不仁者,關注不暢等。然而,西方的讀者不知道,“濟公”為什么答應他們。如果句話直接翻譯為“急攻搶富人幫助窮人,并深深喜愛和貧困”的推崇,文化架構的空白,西方讀者的讀者將是一個句子表面的意思,也沒有像中國讀者產生溫暖的感覺。
此外,在中國歷史悠久,歷朝歷代是一種常見的現象。中國各朝代也有西方游客的示意圖空白的常見原因。例如:
例2:(烏托邦),在山西成立,興盛于唐,宋峰,元泰摧毀,當下降明清款式新穎,抑郁癥的中華民國,成為復雜的大解放在1990年開發規模的恢復[8]。
主席:這是第一次建于魏晉,變得更加繁榮于唐代,宋代各地逐漸興盛起來。然而,它在元代遭受損害。有時上升,有時下降明清。郭閩期間,它成為荒涼,只使出了解放后國家資金已經于1990年發展的一大途徑。
拋開語法錯誤,翻譯和誤用的字不說,翻譯沒有傳達天堂的想法通過翻天覆地的轉變,跌宕起伏的歷史。小知識,中國歷史,外國游客,因為沒有相應的架構,為他們的這些王朝的名字,但沒有任何意義的標志。
(二)文化圖式的差異(文化模式的差距)
霍華德指出,“意向的讀者和作者之間的架構差異采用不同的架構來理解文章,”[4] 42。這是中國文化圖式的旅游宣傳資料翻譯中經常遇到的另一個問題。在這種情況下,原來的作者和讀者的模式不同,甚至是相互矛盾的。當讀者將了解它自己的基礎,相應的模式,但由于中國和西方之間的文化差異,在西方讀者的頭腦中一種完全不同的模式,相同的圖像可能會被激活。
例3:同時,湖取土,堆在山的園林布局的需要,從而使圖像的山像一個大蝙蝠巧妙的... ...
問:在此期間,地球從湖底挖堆積在山上一個挑剔的美化計劃,把成什么樣子像一個巨大的蝙蝠翅膀起毛山... [9] 4
在這個翻譯,譯者似乎原來忠實地傳遞信息。但心目中的讀者問激活的模式是值得商榷的。在西方國家,“蝙蝠”是一種丑陋的生物,通常與邪惡的吸血鬼形象一起上課。這種翻譯不僅無法激活讀者熟悉西方文化模式,但讀者可能會在心中產生負面影響。又如:
例4:涵虛堂:清漪園,黃鶴樓是模仿成名蟾蜍樓建設三個展館,[9] 68。
在這里,“蟾蜍”的動物生活在月亮是一個傳統的中國神話,古人常使用建議的月亮。中國的“蛤蟆”和英文的“蛤蟆”是指動物是一樣的,但讀者的文化模式是不是這些變量在中國的讀者。
旅游這種材料的翻譯,譯者必須考慮到讀者的文化模式,打破界限的表面結構的漢字表達的真正含義
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